The Waterloo Association: Members Area

Join: Join the Waterloo Association

An Account of His Majesty’s De Meuron Regiment Chapter 5: India 1795-1799

An Account of His Majesty’s De Meuron Regiment Chapter 5: India 1795-1799

An Account of His Majesty’s De Meuron Regiment 1795-1816

Chapter 5: India 1795-1799

A new phase in the history of the regiment as part of His Britannic Majesty’s forces commenced when the regiment arrived at the port of Tuticorin, almost 400 miles south of Madras on the Coromandel coast in the Bay of Bengal, during November 1795. A number of men from the De Wurttemberg Regiment, detained as prisoners of war in Ceylon, were released at Madras for enlistment in the De Meuron Regiment.[1] There had previously been protests that De Wurttemberg prisoners were being given putrid water and food resulting in several deaths but after after investigation, it was found ‘there does not appear to be the smallest foundation for the complaint‘.[2]

The arrival of ten companies of the new British regiment in India passed without comment and the troops settled into their new accommodation. The De Meuron Regiment was not destined to stay in Tuticorin, two were posted to Madras at the end of November 1795. The remaining companies were split up, three were sent to Poonamallee, 13 miles south west of Madras, four were sent to Negapatam, 350 miles from Madras, where Major Pierre Lardy commanded and one company was posted back to Colombo. Three officers died at Poonamallee, during the relatively short stay; Lieutenant Quartermaster Balthasar Steussy, commissioned 1791, died on 22nd January 1797, Captain Charles de Meuron-La Tour, commissioned in 1781, died on 24th May 1797, and Second Lieutenant Henri Montandon, commissioned 1795, died on 21st November 1797.

On 27th January 1796, Commander-in-Chief at Madras, Major General Alured Clarke, inspected the De Meuron Regiment and expressed his satisfaction of both ‘the uniforms and the ability of the men to serve their weapons‘, having regard to the short period of time during which the regiment was able to practice according to British regulations for exercise and manoeuvres in the field. The effective strength of the regiment was 1,287 including officers.[3]

Brigadier General Pierre Frederic de Meuron,[4]was appointed the Military Governor and Commander in chief of Ceylon in July 1797. Whether he welcomed the move or viewed it with misgivings is not recorded, but he would have been aware that three previous incumbents of the office, had all died in Ceylon in the preceding twelve months: Colonel George Petrie, 77th Regiment, died 23rd August 1796,[5] succeeded by General Welbore Ellis Doyle, 53rd Regiment, who died on 30 June 1797 and followed by Colonel Peter Bonnevaux, of the Company’s Madras Army,[6] who was killed on 12 July 1797, when his carriage overturned. [7]

De Meuron was invested with the command of troops in Ceylon, until a permanent arrangement could be made and to enjoy the same pay and allowances as his predecessors. His appointment was made on the basis of ‘his personal information and experience obtained by affairs of long residence in Ceylon’. [8]

De Meuron’s first task was not even military one. He was appointed President of a committee and task force to review the imposition of the ‘Carnatic System’ of revenue and tax collection. Enforced by ‘dubashes’, [9] both the system and the dubashes methods caused uproar bordering on a state of revolt and a number of sepoy troops were killed during clashes in certain provinces. Although an East India Company civil servant, Robert Andrews was in discussions with the court of Kandy, the possibility that the insurrection could be exacerbated by the King loomed large in the mind of the new governor[10] and as a first priority he wanted order to be fully restored. Issuing a proclamation recalling the people to obedience he adopted ‘mild measures to ensure the re-establishment of tranquility’,[11] yet took ‘prompt and decisive action in opposing the symptoms of disaffection’. The disaffection was such that it required the additional resource of two detachments of troops from Madras, numbering 1100 Sepoys, termed a ‘Revenue Corps’ under Captains Riddell and Barclay.[12] The rebels when eventually confronted by regular troops on 19th February 1798, melted into the interior and ‘all appearances of commotion have ceased.[13] Colonel Pierre de Meuron’s residence in Colombo was taken over for use as a Court of Equity to redress the issues raised by the native islander’s complaints over revenue and taxes.[14]

In September 1797, Pierre De Meuron’s oversight of review and investigation of the revenue collection was supplanted by the arrival of a new British Governor of Ceylon. Frederick, Lord North took the view that the management of the pearl fisheries was mired in corruption for which Hugh Cleghorn, the Chief Secretary of Ceylon, bore the brunt of the blame and after an inquiry, he was suspended from his post in December 1799, and returned to Scotland in February 1800.[15] After his death in 1836, he was buried in the churchyard at Dunino where his memorial stone records, ‘He was the agent by whose instrumentality the island of Ceylon was annexed to the British Empire‘.[16]

Colonel Pierre De Meuron remained as Commander in Chief until he left Ceylon in February 1799. On his return to India, he claimed additional compensation for the time he spent as President of the Committee, which was brusquely refused citing that, ‘staff allowances have been reimbursed together with travelling charges amounting to 2,194 Pagodas‘.[17] His claim pointed up earlier arguments about the cost of the transfer of the De Meuron Regiment and upon whom these costs ought to fall. Henry Dundas for the British Government was forthright in his view that it was essential for the East India Company to bear its fair share for the conquest of Ceylon together with the cost of any proposed increase in the establishment of British forces in India. However, Hugh Inglis, an elected Company representative wrote to Dundas in August 1797 that, ‘it appears that the regiment has been taken into the service of His Majesty and the Court of Directors under the circumstances find it impossible to authorize the payment of such bills on the Company’s account’. [18]

A return ‘of the officers of His Majesty’s Regiments’ shows Charles Daniel de Meuron, took one years’ leave of absence, authorised by Sir Alured Clarke, and left India on 27th March 1797, aboard the ship Fort William; the same day a fleet of five ships with seven other British officers, the majority on sick leave, also left Fort St George, Madras for Europe.[19]

Major General Charles Daniel de Meuron, was back in London by December 1797, to find that the revised agreement and contract with Madras dated 2nd August 1796, found little favour in Horse Guards, Whitehall. After much obfuscation and initial denial that any such arrangement existed, de Meuron eventually met with Henry Dundas who resolutely refused to agree the re-imbursement of pay arrears. Yet in one of those ‘U-turns’ that governments regularly perform, Meuron would eventually receive a total of £116,000 to clear debts and arrears in full and final settlement. He would be paid £3,000 per annum, a significant reduction from the £6,000 p.a. agreed in 10th article of the capitulation signed in Madras. There was a flurry of correspondence from De Meuron to Robert, Lord Hobart, still Governor of Madras, expressing his concerns over the British position on the transfer of the regiment and the indications that a new capitulation document was in preparation.[20]

The War Office, drew up a third capitulation ‘agreement’, worded rather more in the form of an ultimatum, and presented to Charles de Meuron by Major General Colebrooke Nesbitt. This required immediate acceptance, and with little room to manoeuvre de Meuron acquiesced, the sting in the tail, however was the regiment would nominally remain his property, but he would be deprived of any proprietary rights or privileges. His former regiment was to be wholly part of the British Army, entitled, ‘His Majesty’s Regiment De Meuron’, all buttons and buckle plates to bear the British crown with ‘De Meurons Swiss Regiment’. Furthermore, the War Office had not yet finished with the bureaucracy surrounding the regiment’s transfer.

With the latest document agreed but as yet unsigned, Colebrooke Nesbitt died 21st July 1798, aged 42 years,[21] and the revised capitulation agreement of 13 articles was signed in London on 25th September 1798, between Charles Daniel de Meuron and Inspector General, Lieutenant Colonel John Ramsay 3rd Regiment of Foot. (See Appendix IV) The document confirmed de Meuron as a Major General in the British army, [22] all officers in the regiment were to be Swiss born, and go onto half pay should the regiment not be re-engaged after 10 years. A major problem with the agreement was that the pension date for the rank of De Meuron officers was fixed at the 25th September 1798, and a great deal of correspondence between senior British commanders and various officers of the De Meuron Regiment would be generated by what was viewed as an unfair revision of their conditions of service.[23]

The official establishment of HM’s De Meuron Regiment changed slightly from that which applied prior to its transfer in 1795, but only affected the number of Surgeons, Sergeants and Drummers who were reduced in number. The new establishment was fixed at 1,250 men, including Officers and non-commissioned officers: to be of eleven  companies, one Colonel Commandant, Pierre Frederic de Meuron, two Lieutenant Colonels, J.P. Meuron-Bullot and H. D. de Meuron-Motiers, two Majors, Pierre Lardy, and F. Piachaud, eight Captains, one Captain-Lieutenant, 21 Lieutenants, eight Ensigns, a Paymaster, an Aide, a Quartermaster, one Surgeon and one second Surgeons, [24]  A Sergeant- Major, a Quartermaster Sergeant, 15 Sergeants, 50 Corporals, eight Drummers and 950 troops, subject to recruitment. Lieutenant Colonel Jean Pierre Meuron-Bullot had commanded the regiment since 1797, during the absence of Pierre Frederick de Meuron as Commander in Chief and Military Governor of Ceylon.

A distribution document, dated 1st September 1798, of His Majesty’s regiments, (excluding 33rd Regiment and Invalids) in Coromandel, India and Ceylon, and shows the actual strength of the Swiss Regiment of Meuron, to be well below the desired 1250;[25]

Colonel 1
Lieutenant Col 1
 Major 1
Captains 7
Captain Lieut. 7
1st Lieutenants 13
2nd Lieutenants 4
Ensigns 4
Adjutants 2
Quartermaster 2
Surgeon I
Asst., Surgeon 4
Sergeants 50
Drummers 30
Rank & File Fit for duty 706
Sick 35
10 Companies
Total 741

 

A chaplain and notably three more regimental surgeons were to be eventually appointed, but still represented a significant reduction from the eleven in post prior to the transfer to the British army, but was a fairly typical allocation for a British regiment of that size. Brigadier General Pierre de Meuron had also taken the opportunity to appoint a regimental clerk but without identifying how the clerk’s salary would be paid. He was informed by letter on 8th July 1800, that the final capitulation document made no mention of such an appointment and he would have to submit an application to the Commander in Chief.[26]

Swiss marching airs were to be permitted on parades and the flag, described as the regimental ordnance colours with the motto, ‘Terra et Mare Fidelitas et Honor,’ was to remain the same but with the inclusion of the Union Jack in the inner upper cantonment and to be entirely of the British colours and renewed in 1814.

HM De Meuron Regimental Standard (courtesy Musee d’Histoire Neuchatel)

 

The regimental seal would remain the same except that, ‘Au Service de la Compagnie Hollandaise des Orientales’ and ‘VOC’ would be omitted.

Whilst Brigadier General Pierre F. de Meuron was Military Governor in Ceylon, there had been some consideration that the De Meuron Regiment ought to return to the island and be placed on the Ceylon establishment, however this did not occur.

An interested spectator to what was happening in Ceylon and to Pierre Frederic de Meuron was Colonel Arthur Wellesley, who wrote to his younger brother Henry, on 24th October 1798;[27]

….if I can only get intelligence of what is going on, I shall be more than equal to the military board. I am however heartily sick of the business and wish I was anywhere else. It is reported that De Meuron is desirous of leaving Ceylon; If there be no war, would it not be possible to send me there? I don’t wish that this should be mentioned to M. [28]

M’ in this case was his brother, Richard Wellesley, Earl of Mornington and Governor General of India.

Letters from March 1799, indicate that Wellesley was still feeling undervalued arising from differences with senior commanders over supplies, public stores and mention a ‘Mons. de Meuron’ visiting him about corrupt officers keeping monies for themselves intended for rice supplies and the bazaar.[29]

Charles Daniel de Meuron, in a letter to his brother Pierre dated London 1st March 1799, lamented the difficulties he had suffered in obtaining documents to confirm the dates of commissions admitted in the latest capitulation to document and so secure officers. He explains that he agreed to the latest document and articles not just for the benefit of serving officers, ‘which may be favourable to the just claims of at least twelve of the principal officers’ but also to secure his brother’s position as a Brigadier General in the British army.[30]

Whilst Charles de Meuron was lamenting his difficulties and attempts to reach an accord over money with the Government in London, on 4th March 1799, Robert Lukin, Agent to the Foreign Corps, Cleveland Row, St. James, had submitted a statement of monies paid to Officers of the De Meuron Regiment for subsistence and arrears of pay on their setting out for the East Indies, pursuant to War Office letters dated 11th December 1798 – 21st February 1799. A total of £2,756, 11 shillings and 4 pence had been paid to nine named ensigns, including an allowance of £90 each, which enabled them to dine at a Captain’s table, during their passage to India.[31]

The Governor General, Lord Mornington received a letter dated 18th July 1799, from Lieutenant General Sir Alured Clarke, now  Commander-in-Chief, India since 1798, confirming that the De Meuron Regiment was now officially a regiment of the King’s Army. Clarke had received correspondence from Colonel Robert Brownrigg, Military Secretary to Field Marshal, Frederick Duke of York, and British Commander in Chief,[32] outlining that the Duke wished to give the ‘requisite orders for carrying it into full effect immediately’ and on 22nd January 1800, Lieutenant General George Harris was requested to ensure this was done.[33] Orders and letters often arrived late or not at all and in fact the General Order touching upon the De Meuron transfer had already been published.

The regiment had finally transferred into the British army and appeared in the War Office Army List in 1800, (although a handwritten entry in a 1799 list shows an entry for Count De Meuron as a Major General for 30th March 1799).[34] The initial period of the regiment’s engagement was for ten years with the opportunity for the British government to renew the contract.[35] Should the regiment be disbanded all officers would receive half pay.

In 1798, upon orders of the French Directory, Napoleon Buonaparte had invaded Egypt in an effort to increase French influence and reduce the dominion of the Ottoman Empire within the Middle East. There was a secondary reason, Napoleon had previously written a letter on 25th January 1799 to Tippoo Sultan, Sultan of Mysore, better known as ‘The Tiger of Mysore’, that he would deliver him, ‘from the iron yoke of England’.[36] Tippoo may have believed the rhetoric, however the reality of events in India were to prove disastrous for the ‘Tiger of Mysore’ and present an early opportunity for action in the field to the De Meuron Regiment.

Once the report that Buonaparte had invaded Egypt was confirmed, orders were issued for the De Meuron Regiment to be ready to embark for Egypt, in an army under the command of Major General David Baird. The order was countermanded and only a small detachment of 20 men of the regiment under a non-commissioned officer left India for Egypt on 6th April 1801.[37] Napoleon Buonaparte enjoyed considerable success in Egypt but his army was defeated at the battle of Alexandria by the British on 21st March 1801, and finally surrendered 31st August 1801.

Henderick Portenger, a member of the De Meuron Regiment’s detachment sent to Egypt, described in his account as a ‘private soldier, and the sole survivor of the detachment’, that all his fellow soldiers had supposedly been ‘killed in a confrontation with a party of Arabs‘.[38]

The full complement of the regiment had not been sent to Egypt, because it was to be deployed in the 4th and last Anglo-Mysore War 1799, against Tippoo Sultan. After Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt, the Governor General Lord Mornington, sought to obtain a satisfactory answer from Tippoo Sultan about his intentions and should Tippoo mobilise his troops, Mornington was authorised to ‘carry our arms into our enemy’s country’.[39]

Colonel Pierre de Meuron was not to accompany his regiment to war, despite requesting to do so, but was appointed the commanding officer of the garrison at Vellore, a military cantonment containing a large moated 14th century fort, barracks, hospital, accommodation for State prisoners,100 miles from Madras, and occupied by the British since 1768.[40]

During his time at Vellore, De Meuron considered aspects of the management of the regiment including the uniform, now that it was part of HM’s forces and was to change completely to the British regimental style. He refers to the original uniform of the regiment whilst in the service of the Dutch and of the regiment’s new British scarlet coat with ‘azure blue facings,’ and hoping that the blue will not receive adverse comment ‘because it is not royal blue![41]

The colour of the uniform jacket or coat, cuffs, lapels and collar is confirmed in a later image titled, ‘A View of the British Army on the Present Establishment’, published in 1803, in which the ‘Meuron Swiss Regiment’ is mentioned and illustrated as one of four ‘Foreign Regiments‘.[42]

A View of the British Army on the Present Establishment’, a diagrammatical representation of the contemporary British Army by Charles Phillipe De Bosset, published 1803, in which figures drawn by John Atkinson and the Royal monogram crest flanked by trophies over 4 scenes with uniformed figures including 2 equestrian figures, in a diagrammatic representation of the then current establishment of the British Army. ‘Dedicated to His Royal Highness the Duke of York, Commander in Chief &c &c &c, by His most humble, most obedient and most dutiful Servant Charles Philip de Bosset, Swiss Regt. de Meuron’.[43] De Bosset is the subject of correspondence held in the National Archive regarding his association with Thomas Pitt, 2nd Lord Camelford variously described as a ‘thug’ and ‘a wastrel’. Apparently Camelford had provided De Bosset with a large sum of cash to procure intelligence regarding Spanish settlements in South America. This all came to nothing but temporarily involved De Bosset being investigated by William Wickham, Superintendent of the Aliens Office, Whitehall during January 1799 and Under Secretary of State at the Home Office, effectively the Head of the Secret Service.[44] All documentary records of the regiment were to be written in French, whilst at drill or in the field the words of command were to be in German, and when in garrison commands were given in English, unless ordered otherwise. Punishment was to continue on the same basis as before the regiment’s transfer and a Captain authorised to order 25 strokes of a cane on the buttocks for privates without reference to a senior officer. (Certain elements of the practice were still heard of in the British army as late as 1953.)[45]

It had been customary for Swiss regiments to have stoppages of one third from pay to cover uniform, food and linen, towards ‘the expense of the band, an extra payment to the first Sergeant of every company and for relieving men of good conduct who were burthened with families’. On the transfer to British service this stoppage initially ceased but Pierre de Meuron re-established a ‘stock purse or fund,’ to which all officers, NCO’s and men would contribute and the new rates based on a single amount deducted from monthly pay, scaled according to rank. These deductions were added to the profits made from the mess and used for the benefit of those previously mentioned, but now included any soldier of good conduct with children whether married or not, a payment to all regimental widows, the establishment of a school and the expenses associated with that.[46]

The regiment was described as a ‘rather outstanding example’ of a number of ‘very unorthodox’ units which served under the British flag and adopted the uniform of the British infantry.[47]

 

[1] C. Atkinson, SAHR, FOREIGN REGIMENTS IN THE BRITISH ARMY, 1793-1802: PART VI, Vol. 22, No. 91 (Autumn, 1944), pp.265-276

[2] BL Africa & Asia Collection IOR/F/4/1149 letter dated June 1797.

[3] G. de Meuron, Le Regiment Meuron, p.165

[4] Kent County Council Lord Harris Archive, U624 614:  Appendix III clause 10.  Although a Colonel, Pierre F. De Meuron used the rank of Brigadier General and was addressed as such in correspondence by other commanders.

[5] J. P. Lewis, List of the Inscriptions on Tombs and Monuments in Ceylon. (Colombo, Ceylon: H. Cottle, Govt. Printer, 1913) p.79, entry 286.

[6] E. Dodwell & J. Miles, An Alphabetical List of the Officers of the Indian Army 1770-1837. (London: Longman Orme & Co. 1838) Peter Bonnevaux, entered Madras Army, Ensign 1768, Lieutenant 1770, Captain 1779, Major 1788, Lieutenant Col. 1794.

[7] J. P. Lewis, List of the Inscriptions on Tombs and Monuments in Ceylon. (Colombo, Ceylon: H. Cottle, Govt. Printer, 1913) p 380. Both officers have brief biographical entries.

[8] British Library Africa & Asia Collection IOR/F/4/1149 Military letter dated 17 October 1797.

[9] H. Burnell & A Yule, Hobson Jobson. A Glossary of Anglo-Indian Words, (London: J Murray 1903) Dubash, an employee, a messenger, an evil spirit and latterly ‘an enemy of the Singhalese’.

[10] British Library Africa & Asia Collection IOR/F/4/1149 Military Collections & Letters

[11] Africa & Asia Collection IOR/H/86 military letters.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Africa & Asia Collection IOR/H/86 military letters, & military letters, IOR/F/4/1149.

[14] Translated from the original French of M de La Thombe, Recueil de’Notes sur une Attaque et Defense de Colombo,’ by Colonel A.B.Fryer R.E. Surveyor General, (Ceylon) Vol X, No. 37 (1888) of the Journal R.A.S. (C.B.).

[15] L. Mills, Ceylon Under British Rule 1795-1932, (London: OUP 1933) p.32. Hugh Cleghorn 1751-1836, is recorded as the owner of Strathvithie Castle, nr Dunino, the Pitreavie Estate nr Dunfermline, a large town house in St Andrews, and a property in Wakefield.

[16] British Library Africa and Asia Collection MSS EUR F370/1619

[17] IOR/Z/E/38/808, p.120

[18] IOR/H/86 pp.211-213

[19] Kent County Council Lord Harris Archive U624/0102/1

[20] Buckinghamshire Archives, correspondence of Lord Hobart D-MH/H/India/O 1794-1798. (13 letters)

[21] https://billiongraves.com/grave/Colebrooke-Nesbitt/11976914, (Major) Lieutenant General Colebrooke Nesbitt died 1798, memorial headstone at St James Piccadilly, London.

[22] Army List 1801 (War Office Dublin Castle) C.D. Count de Meuron, Major General w/e 30 March 1795;

Lieut. Colonel John Ramsay shown as Royal Artillery, p.387

[23] Kent County Council Lord Harris Archives ref U624/646A – U624/0408 De Meuron Regiment.

[24] Army List 1801, (Dublin Castle: the War Office Sept. 1801)

[25] Kent County Council Lord Harris Archive U624/0408/1, dated 20th September 1798. Other regiments shown in the document are 19th Dragoons, 25th, 29th, 12th, 73rd, 74th, 19th & 80th Foot.

[26] [26] Kent County Council Lord Harris Archive.

[27] DNB, (Oxford, OUP, 1975) Henry Wellesley, 1773-1847. Purchased an Ensigncy 40th Foot and a Lieutenancy in 1st Foot Guards, but principally was a diplomat in India, 1797-1799, where he was a Commissioner over Mysore after the defeat of Tippoo Sahib and during 1801-1802 in Oudh. Later granted a peerage as Baron Cowley of Wellesley.

[28] J. Gurwood, Supplementary Despatches and Memoranda of Arthur, the Duke of Wellington India 1797-1805, (London: J. Murray, 1858) p.118-119

[29] J. Gurwood, Supplementary Despatches and Memoranda of Arthur, the Duke of Wellington India 1797-1805, (London: J. Murray, 1858) March 1799, p.200

[30] Kent County Council Lord Harris Archives ref 624/0614/1

[31]Africa & Asia Collection, IOR/E/4/888 p 302; IOR/F/4/78/1728;

1805 Army List shows a Mr. Disney,26 Parliament St. London listed as the De Meuron Regimental Agent.

[32] T. Heathcote, The British Field Marshals (London: Leo Cooper, 1999) pp.127-130

[33] Africa & Asia Collection IOR/F/53/1149/1801.

[34] TNA WO/65/49/1 1799 Army List

[35] Article 1 Capitulation 25th September 1798.

[36] D. Bingham, A Selection from the Letters and Despatches of the First Napoleon, (London: Chapman & Hall, 1884) Three Vols. Vol. I, p.244

[37] R. T. Wilson, History of the British Expedition to Egypt, (London: T Egerton 1803) 2 Vols. Vol. II. pp.39 &144, Troops from India left the Sub-continent, travelled to Egypt under Baird on 6 April 1801 returning to Calcutta on 31 July 1802.

[38] G. de Meuron Le Regiment de Meuron 1781-1816 (Edition D’En Bas, Le Forum Historique, 1982) p.192; Portenger & R. May, Narrative of the Sufferings and Adventures of Henderick Portenger, A Private Soldier of the Late SwissRegiment De Meuron, (London for Sir Richard Phillips. 1819)

[39] A. Roberts, Napoleon and Wellington, (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 2001) p.16

[40] S. Toy, The Strongholds of India, (London: W. Heinemann, 1957) pp.18-19

[41] Kent County Council Lord Harris Archive, U624/0614/13-6

[42] Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, Vol. 11, No. 43 (JULY, 1932), pp. 173-175.

[43] WO25/755/178, De Bosset was commissioned into the regiment as an Ensign in 1796 and promoted Lieutenant in 1796. He did not accompany the regiment on campaign in India but returned to Europe in a recruitment role until 1803, then transferred to the KGL, Roll & 50th Regiments where he was appointed a Colonel. Appointed the Governor of Cephalonia from 1810 to 1814, he remained in British service until 1818. He committed suicide in 1845.

[44] TNA HO 42/45/60, 64, 65; DNB Vol II p.1671, Thomas Camelford 1775-1804. Killed in a duel.

[45] Kent County Council Lord Harris Archive, U624/0614/13, P.F Meuron Memorandum; Daily Mirror, London, 9 January 1953, https://www.corpun.com/ukar5301.htm accessed 21/01/22

[46] Kent County Council Lord Harris Archive, U624/0614/13-7

[47] R M. Barnes, Military Uniforms of Britain and the Empire, (London: Seeley Service & Co. undated) Vol I. pp. 84, 337.